jueves, 28 de febrero de 2013



Probably you have considered it,..you have heart about it,...or just still have doubts, if E-commerce is compatible with your typical retail business. Will it not harm your sales in your store?..Will you not compete with your own traditional sales channel? What about your sales people?..What kind of price levels, you have to use? 
As you can see, a lot of questions and doubts,...but believe me...E-commerce is the future and there is no way back, than to the multichannel business. 
Here you have 10 reasons, why you should not hesitate any more and just start your own online store:

*As you have already a store, you have already an existing working operation with a number of fixed operation costs like warehouse space, electricity, staff, etc... .  The use of an E-commerce business implement a setup or creating cost and a yearly management fee, nothing else.  So, by using your existing shop operation as showroom and or warehouse,...you can generate more sales, using the same operation costs.

*You will be able to increase your clients, using the online shop as window and creating more visibility of you existing physical store.  It has be confirmed, that consumers who have seen a campaign online, often buy directly into your store.

*You will create a direct link with your possible consumers, using an actual and similar form, the way they are using.  Do not forget,..follow the consumers trends...be on-line.

*By using E-commerce, you will be using the latest tools like Twitter, Facebook, Pinterest and blogs in order to interact with your consumers.

*Always see, what your competitors are doing,..are they in internet,...do not miss the boat....be there...

*By using E-commerce, you will start to benefit of scale economy, as having an extra channel to sell you products in stock.

*You will be able to captivate new clients, especially young consumers groups, who maybe never should have visit your store before.

*You will be able to create groups and, or associate your business to similar or related webs,blogs, or collective group voucher companies, like Groupon,... with the end result, more brand and store knowledge and eventually a sales increase.

*E-commerce is worldwide business,...so no geographical limits.  You just can sell everywhere. 

*Probably, the fasted and most increasing business opportunity of the world,...more and more, we will buy through the E-commerce channel.

So, dear retailer, as you can see,..you just have nothing to loose,..invest into a good E-commerce web and tackle the market. Be on the top and a retail trendsetter. Your existing shop and organization can function as your showroom, office and or warehouse.
So, just do not loose this fantastic opportunity......





In this part, we are going to tackle the interior of the store.  Today, your shop should transmit your company message, your strategic and or marketing plan.  So, not just 4 walls, counter and nothing more...., but organized, structured and designed the way,..it will give you the optimum sales results, transmitting at the same time your  brand image and create the right memorable emotions to your clients.  
De outlook of your store interior, should be organized, the way it is easy, logical and comfortable for your clients to shop, but also easy for you and your team, to operate respecting above emotions.
We can divide parameter 2, the store interior into various key elements...

The store access:

We can divide the store access into 3 sub elements,... the dimension, the materials and the door location.
Let analyse them....
Probably the most important and significant elements of the interior architecture, as it is the first contact where your client will initiate its possible sales experience.  So, very important, that the entrance always allows easy access, that the store access is not complicated and that it invites and motivates the possible consumer to enter easily.  We recommend to have the doors always open.  (depending the existing laws on product obligations and season conditions, you can install the typical air door ventilation systems)

Also the used materials of your door entrance, have to be light, safe, easy to open and transparent, in order to make it easy to use and invite the client to go into your store.  It is clear that the selected materials, colors and designs, should be in line with your concept or message , you want to transmit.

The right door location, is vital, as it has been proven, that it is of strategic importance and a key to have  commercial success, to have the entrance on the exact place.  Lets see why...
The store access, is the beginning of the tour that the consumer will start to initiate.  By guiding the client, along a inside shopping path, you will be able to make it very easy to the client, to see all your product groups.  It has been proven, that clients, when entering into a store, have the tendency to go to the center of your store, by turning than, always to the left side and following the patch and moving to the right,..So, if possible, just have your main entrance always at the right side of your store.

Lets start now analyze the division of the store surface.  We can divide it into 5 areas:
- the hot area: the part of the store, where most people walking or passing. (ex. the main central passage)
- the cold area: the rest of the store, with less people or transit, due to its bad access or store situation.
- the hot points into a specific area:  the parts of a specific hot area who are creating a lot of traffic or of great importance.
- the cold points into a specific area: the parts of a specific cold area, who are creating less traffic.
- the natural hot area of your store: an area of the store, which is by itself an important part (ex. the entrance, the main path and the part where people are paying).  Mainly, we will find this more into smaller stores.  It is important that the natural hot area,  connects the entrance, with the various hot areas into the store, allowing also to reach the cold areas, creating more flow of people with an eventual sales increase.

Example store planning City Supermarket.

In order to have an excellent store format and sales result, it is important that the hot points of your store should be at least 10% of your shopping area, while the cold points should not represent more than 10% of your store area.  When planning your store interior, it is important to optimize the hot areas instead of the cold areas.  However, this depends mostly on the existing access or entrance doors, the kind and size of the sales surface (ex.a rectangular store surface is always easier) and if exist eventual different floor levels. (ex. if a store has 3 levels, the ground level floor is the hot area, the basement mainly the very cold area and the first floor a less but cold area.
So when analyzing your existing store and or evaluating an eventual new store location,...always have in mind, that the existing or possible hot area should dominate, in order to create more traffic into your store.

Example of high traffic or hot areas in store.

We will now talk about the layout and the design of the store surface.  We can divide it into the border perimeter, the central perimeter and the shop counter.

- The border perimeter: allows you to present the products alongside the border of your store.  It has to permit you to have a good a good product presentation and an easy to-use or adaptable system, in line with you store image and or corporate commercial layout. 

- The central perimeter, allows you to present the goods into the central part of the store.  Avery important perimeter, as, in function of the position and the used kind of presentations, you will be able to increase your sales turnover.  Good to know, that the corners of the central perimeter of the main access and or store path (with the most traffic) are very required by big consumer brands, willing to pay up to high renting fees to have this store space reserved.  Like above, the used materials have to be easy to adapt and allow a good product presentation.  And in line with your corporate commercial image. 

-The shop counter: the counter location into the store is of vital importance, as it will allow you to control the consumer flow and the time clients are into your store, with the final result, buying more.  Always important, next to its main function, controlling the entrance and its advisory role, the counter should always be place on a strategic place, with the purpose to maintain the consumer flow the much time possible, allowing more sales possibilities.  However, the size of your store, often has an influence 
on the above.  Try to locate your counter always in a colder area of the store, instead of the hot area, as it will take more time to consumers to leave your store. 

Example of the importance of the perimeters of a supermarket with fresh food.






miércoles, 20 de febrero de 2013


Just surf to our archive of the 29/01/2013, to read all about Copenhagen, the creative retail city.


Week 6

A Destination Store: A kind of retail concept (can be store, catalog or website), where the consumers will organize a special shopping trip, in order to buy products.  General, it is a concept with a specialized product group and a in debt product offer.  We mainly know it, of the organized trips to a factory, presenting their products to possible consumers.

A Flat Organization: A term, describing the kind of management organization in a company.  General an organization with many subordinates, responding to one general supervisor.  Very simple management structure.

An Overstored Trading Area: A geographic area, with an excess of stores, selling similar products, with the result, that it is impossible to make a decent profit or even a break even.  Lately, happens a lot into the electro and or media retail market, where there is an excess of retailers, working with very low profit margins. 

Private Brands: A group of products, also name 'white label', made by the retailer him self, next to the typical branded products. Those products have a self created retail brand label, are only sold into the stores of the retailer, have generally bigger retail margins, lower retail prices and automatically create consumer loyalty.   The latest years, there was a huge trend towards home branded products, however lately, we can see an increasing demand for branded consumer products again.  Some mayor discount changes,..like Lidl, are slowly introducing more and more brands again, trying to upgrade their concept and captivate the brand oriented consumer.


Or how can we cope with the empty store symptom.....in our retail streets.

The todays worldwide upcoming empty store symptom in all cities, reflects part of the current complicated economical situation, we are going through and is forcing all major actors like retailers, landlords and local governments to act and to re-imagine the future cooperation in a new one way oriented direction.  
Maybe, it is time that large retail chains forget there double digit profit margins and their fast swift to other store locations, in case the store results are some weaker, that local governments stop killing their city centers by allowing the construction of continuous new retail parks out of town, creating a death inner town, pushing the local people to buy out of their home town or that landlords lower their lease fees, so that retailers can manage to continuo their business, even during this though economical situation. (already more than 5 years now...)
The decreasing group of consumers, due to the economical situation and the increasing more critical group of online consumers, seduced by new creative ways of buying....leaves us no other way than reinventing our retail streets.
So, lets sit together and realize that it will not be anymore like before,...that we all have to change our chip in order to attack the problem.  Retailers will have to invent the real way of dealing with clients, using smaller spaces, being much more creative and original. Local governments will have to listen more to the local people, changing priorities and putting the emphasis on how to reanimate their city centers, instead of killing them..  Landlords will have to realize that a retailer can only survive when he makes a certain profit and like this he stays motivated to continue to do his business, so asking realistic rents. 
So,...what can we do more...

Projects like the 'Empty Shops Network'..or 'Nest Project'  are bringing together, helping, re-imagining, creating and recycling old store locations and or even neighborhoods, by offering the possibility.. using this locations for social enterprises, artists, upcoming entrepreneurs, local organizations,..etc.. transforming this empty high street image into a new more social climate and environment,.. where people, interact, again, with one another, the way it was before.

Have a look, how the Empty Shops Network,...see it...


Just have a look, how we can do much more....together..an example or how, by being creative, we can  change an empty store..and or neighborhood...





Dear city counselor,...some great ideas, how to start changing your city center...

As you can see, it is time to re-imagine our high streets,...let them become community pools,...where people meet each other, interact, exchange ideas, products, services. We have to get a way from this 'all the same' looking un-personal retail streets, offering the same stores every where.
As already explained in previous post, there is a need and a desire for the return to the old social values,...
So lets sit together and start the change...lets tackle the empty store problem...

lunes, 18 de febrero de 2013


Week 7

Employees, idea 4
Always try to be positive in the use of your communications towards your employees.  Often, we are used to criticize the work, instead of using first positive comments, informing them on things to approve or to do better.  By putting the emphasis on the good things done, you will create a good and positive atmosphere, openness to listen and motivation of the person to accept and change little errors and mistakes.  Always, put yourself into the place of the employee, to understand his possible reaction.  Just think twice, before sending or commenting.

Clients, idea 6
In order to captivate the attention of the clients and stimulate the sales, often, we use various price tags, labels and boards, communicating our product offers in the store.  (especially use full in case, our salespeople are not available to respond)
However, it is important that those boards go in line with your store image and transmit the message you want to communicate. By using the right materials, colors, type of lettres, prices and key slogans you will be able to transmit, but be also aware that an excess or wrong or excessive use of those forms of communication can create a revers effect with your clients. Never forget that the what counts is the product.

Internal system, idea 5
Try to use the retail calendar, in order to make your store activity planning.  It will allow you, to organize various activities, be a guideline for your internal organization and stimulate your sales. Start setting up this activities from the beginning of the year, taking in account al details, in order to coordinate them, to achieve the best results.  Often, some things need to be organized and ordered before.  It is clear if you plan a Valentines action, you will need to coordinate it before in the media and maybe also organize extra sales staff in order to help.
So, try to be creative with your yearly retail marketing calendar. 

jueves, 14 de febrero de 2013




If we have to talk about the 'Chatuchak Weekend Market' in Bangkok, Thailand, we have to talk about 35acres market space, up to 8000 market stalls offering everything and more than 200.000 visitors a day.  Probably, the largest weekend market in the world.  An amazing huge market space, divided into 27 sections, divided by various type of product groups.  However, ...sometimes, you can find them mixed up and repeated.  
The market is offering the most various range of products and services, like household, clothing, foods, animals, plants, Thai arts,..etc...and the amazing atmosphere is a mixture of this typical Asian overcrowded mass markets, offering everything.  
Name it,..you will find it.....Here you will find the basic form of retailing.
In order not to loose your way, as it is so huge and everything looks similar, the best way, is orientated yourself to the outside external buildings of the market.
If you like to sniff a typical exotic Asian bazaar feeling,... the 'Chatuchak Weekend Market' is a must.


miércoles, 13 de febrero de 2013



Tiger, a Danish  successful retail concept, started in 1995, in Denmark and counts today with more than 170 stores around Europe and lately also in Japan.  Considered originally as discounter, today they have created an added value to simple, but beautiful affordable products, creating and presenting the products in a clean Scandinavian looking concept.  The company philosophy is selling innovative quality utilities at strong prices. Entering into a store, is a amazing and funny experience, as all products are originally and mostly unique.  The product is the main item and everything is based on the presentation of it. Clearly a good example of by being different, you can be success full.
However, the main point, which marks the difference,....is probably their 'Corporate Social Responsibility' obligation.  Working with Tiger, as supplier and or agent, requires the agreement of their way of working.  Values like honesty, ethics and respecting the basic principles of human rights, labor conditions and natural environment are fundamental and a principal rule for eventual cooperation.
Tiger aims to be an exemple of how to use, the somewhat lost ethics and moral values, of the last years (where everything was possible, without rules and moral responsibility) in order to create a new form of doing business.  Doing business with moral values.
Just an great example, that it can be done different.....So, dear Nike's, Zara's, Wall marts,...and many other low cost producers,...take an example....


viernes, 8 de febrero de 2013



Dear Readers,
We would like to know about you..., your opinions, comments.., what you think about us, about our weekly stories and management tips....
Lets us know, what we can do better, change,...or even..., what we are doing good.
Your ideas can shape the future... 

jueves, 7 de febrero de 2013


Just enter and enjoy the wonderful world of Schwarz, after dark...

In line with our remarkable retail stores concepts, we have to talk you, about one of the most exiting toy stores, in the world, the Schwarz store in New York.   For more than 150 years, Schwarz has been a landmark in toy retailing and has created a magical world, where toys have become part of our real life, by using the most original theatre and show tools, creating this amazing permanent atmosphere.  Captivating young and old since more than 150 years, must-be- seen destination in New York, pop icon for generations, scene of many pictures, like 'Big', where the young Tom Hanks and Robert Loggia where dancing on the giant foot piano, the Schwartz toy store has, like no one, created the perfect story.
By entering in the store, 2 toy soldiers are greeting the crowds. The store is filled up with al kind of toys of around the world, organized in themes and areas, creating an amazing wonderland. If you don't find it in Schwarz, probably, it does not exist. Personal shoppers are keen to help customers and you will find through out the store permanent shows, 'like the famous giant foot piano', workshops,..and floor animation.
No one, like Schwarz, has managed to translate the message of how to marketeer the best way your product mix.  By specializing and offering only the best of the best in toys, they created a unique retail experience.
Visiting 'Schwarz' toy store, should be one of your priorities and an obliged stop, in order to understand, how you can be different than your competitors.  Being unique.....
Although Schwarz toy store maintains its typical family concept, in 2009 , it was taken over by world's leading toy retailer Toys''R''Us.
Let yourself, go beyond your wildest childhood dreams and jump into the wonderful world of Schwarz....enjoyed it.




The architecture of the store should be considered one of the important tools, in order to be successful.  It is the first eye contact with the consumer,  appealing immediately to the feelings, emotions and desires of the potential clients, creating a specific commercial atmosphere, in order to motivate and stimulate  them, to enter into your store.
The various main elements (parameters), who we consider the global exterior architecture, like the entrance, the shop window, the brand or logo identification and the facade are strategic, in order to create and transmit your retail strategy.  They will determine your real identity and move your consumers to your sales point.

Hollister store concept

Lets analyze them:

The Entrance: 
It is clear, that the bigger and the wider the door, the better, as it will invite the peoples easier and faster, into your store.  A minimum 2 meters door width is required, in order have a conform retail entrance. Of course, the obliged entrance measurements often depends on the existing local laws and or obligations, due to security reasons.
A floor unevenness , basement or 1st floor, also can provide and or create a complicate access and limit the access to the store. They can create a barrier and demotivate the possible clients to enter into your store. So, make sure, your entrance door is free of any obstacles and designed the way, it is easy to enter into the shop.
The entrance door should be easy to open, made of materials in line with your store concept, inviting the consumer to enter, even if the shop doors are closed (crystal doors preferable, as they permit a view into the store and are inviting to enter and show the visual merchandising).  Rolling up or automatic sliding doors are the most convenient and will allow, a very easy access to the store.

The Shop Window:
The shop window will permit you, to transmit to the possible client your message, concept and or product.  The more shop window meters you have, the better..and more people will be attracted to see and or enter.  However, next to the available meters, we have to talk also about the design of this window shop.  The space has to be created, in order to present an attractive and original product presentation, in line with your company strategy and image.  The main purpose....attract the attention...by presenting the goods in an original way and changing on a regular base, presenting new themes and or products.
The ideal size of the window space, depends a lot of the kind of business, you operating in.  It is clear that a furniture store needs more space than an optical store. Having a corner store with 2 or more windows will allow you to have an excellent communication. 

The Brand and logo Identification:
A strategic element, as it will present the image, concept and identification of your company.  It will allow you to differentiate from your competitors and guide your clients towards your store. Your name, symbol, sign and design should be in harmony (types, sizes, color combinations, materials,...) with what your company represent and transmit.  Most of the time, you will have to adapt your identification to existing urban laws.  The bigger and clearer is you logo, the better visual will be your sales point.  However, see that it goes in line with your total company image and facade.  A combined way of horizontal and vertical communication forms will allow you the best visual way.  Be aware, to use updated (and also functioning...) innovating communication identification, as it will reflect your image and company culture.   

The Facade:
The facade of your store is the face of your company and reflects the global image, you want to transmit.  Your facade should go in line with the interior of your shop and the style of products you are selling.  By using the right materials, you should find a combination of all internal and external elements.
The bigger your store facade,the better you can communicate and  the more attractive will be your store, creating, automatically, more flow of possible clients.

Victoria secrets store

As in our previous marketing tool, 'The Store Location', we will now start quoting and evaluating our 4 parameters, from 0 to 3, using the same table and calculating the final results.  Be honest with yourself,...Make your list according to your parameters and start the evaluation. 

Here you will find an example of the list to quoted:

- how are you door dimensions?
- any floor unevenness or obstacles? 
- what about the used materials?
- is there an easy access?
Shop window:
- what is the size of the shop window, dimensions
- how is design of the shop window
The brand and logo identifications:
- how about your design, is it in line with your image and company marketing policy?
- what about the visibility,...can you identify it easy?
- does it fit into your global concept, in line with your products and inside store image?
- is it in line with the existing urban rules and or laws?
The facade:
- what about the used materials and dimensions?
- reflects your facade what you are and what you try to bring?....Is the message clear?

For your help, here are the quotes:

0 = critical, requieres immediate action
1 = not that favorable, needs a short medium action
2 = favorable, good, but needs a medium long action
3 = optimal, perfect

If you are analyzing your existing sales point or are looking to open a new store location,..it is very important to analyze all details in debt, in order to manage the best store location and or transmitting the ideal communication.  

Example 1: Your possible new store location has a entrance door of less than 1m20, should be worth wile to look for another store locations.

Example 2: The store location is a old style corner building with a lot of window space and reflects your concept image, just go ahead....

Lets evaluate and quote...   
'CAMPER' trendy shoe store concept, in the shadow of the art and culture centre 'Centre Pompidou' Paris

It is clear that, in line with the right store location, the exterior architecture of your existing and or new store has to transmit your image and company philosophy.  It has to been in line, with what your offer inside and of a certain continuity.  At the end, it will transmit your concept in clear and professional way to your possible clients. It is also important to be exigent with your store selection and analyze all parameters objective, before taking any decision on taking a new store location or changing existing one.  Be aware, that it is the first visual contact with the consumer.  So,... try to seduce them with an amazing and attractive store front.



Week 5

A Box Store: In generally a food discounter, offering a limited number of services, brands and a small selection of items.  They also operate with a limited opening hours.

Mass Marketing: A form of selling goods and or services to a broad range of consumers

Niche Retailing: A way of using unique retail strategies, focusing on possible new customer segments.  Today it is very important to try to detect the possible niches in the market and focus your business strategy on those segments, as they offer a lot of opportunities.  It is part of 'being different' than your competitors.

A Planogram: A visual, mainly graphical map of your selling space, where all marketing tools, like  situation product groups, merchandise, employees and clients are situated.  Vital instrument to start and follow as guideline, during your store setup.

martes, 5 de febrero de 2013



For those who taught that the future of the small retailer, would come to an end, mainly due to the heavy competition of major international retail chains, E-commerce companies,.. and the last years though economical crisis,....could probably have made a wrong calculation.
Today, it was never that good, to be your own boss, to run your own business.  In a market, where major retail companies have been failing,..today we need to go back to the roots.  The real, honest way of retailing.  Face to face.  
Todays consumer, due to this general world rejection against the last years way of economical acting, is looking again for emotion. They like to be treated well, fair, honest and fast.  They prefer the culture of service, even if they first... were attracted for the price or the special promotion.
Who else, better than a small shop owner can give this personal service. As explained in previous posts, being different, is important.  If you,...retailer, can have a different more specialized product or service offer (forget to compete on prices with your bigger competitors,..you will not succeed) and combine it with this typical personal touch and approach, you will be very successful.  Just use your imagination and look around.  Take ideas and try them out.  You have the advantage of being a small company, close on the field, who can try and act immediately. 
It is all about understanding the human connection.  At the end, we all like to being served the right honest way.  And we can be very loyal to maintain it.
So lets act....like my sister, Gudrun, is always claiming,..think global but.. buy local....


Week 5

Clients, idea 5
Put the maximum out of your store and change the possible clients to real clients.  Do you know, how many clients have walked through your door?  Did they bought something, or just walked away with nothing.  We called it the conversion rate (%).  Its is the number of people visiting your store in a certain time period, dividing by the number of orders, made in that same period, multiplying by 100.  It will allow you, to see how efficient your store really is.  Imagine that you have 100 people visiting your store in one day, but only 10, are buying something,.. that means that 90 persons did not buy anything or did not found what they were looking for in your store  (most of the time, if a client go to a store, there exist a need for something). So, lets imagine that from the 90 people, we could motivate 15, to buy in your store.  Can you imagine,..your results....?
Knowing your conversion rate, will allow you to analyze in detail why and how you can obtain better results.  So, install this customer store meter and start increasing your turn-over.

Internal System, idea 4
A store has to live, has to be a permanent moving and changing of products.  Be careful, that your store does not become a museum. Today, clients like to touch the products, try or feel them.  Your presented goods, have to be easy to take and to try. Each obstacle, could complicate the eventual buying process.
Do you have a promotion,..are you having enough items in your store and or stock..?  What about the collections presented in the shop window?...Most of the time,..those items sell more...so provide the necessary stock.

Employees, idea 3
How to motivate your people continuously, is probably one of the most important parts of your store management.  For those, who believe that the salary is the only way to have them stimulated, today the main reasons for keeping them motivated are quiet different.  The working environment, the colleagues
from work, the promotion possibilities, flexible working hours,...are considered as the most important reasons for people to continuo in their job.  Today, especially in todays economical complicate situation, people are looking for different values and stability.  However, it is important not to believe that by just offering stability and at the same time cutting all standard general minimum working conditions, you will be able to keep them motivated.  Try to look for both...

sábado, 2 de febrero de 2013




In line with our weekly market visits, I like to start our trip, with one of my most favorite flea markets, Le Jeu de Balle' or 'Vossenplein' in Flemish.  Situated in the center of the 'Marollen', a very popular and historical neighborhood, in the shadow of the impressive 'Palais de Justice', right in the hart of  Brussels.
Know as a somewhat marginalized and social low class area, mainly due, to the desertion of the inner-city in the sixties, and the arrival of immigrants of the whole world,.. today it is a melt pot of a lot of nationalities offering a tremendous culture diversity. This is the real hart of 'Brussels'. The main market place, the little streets, full of antique and brocante stores, the old typical cafés and restaurants, the painted comics on the walls, the mixed international crowd, the little stands with 'snails a la Bruxelloise'...this gipsy kind, unorganized,...lovely atmosphere.  
The flea market, exist since 1873. You will find everything,..from antiques, brocante, furniture, glasware, pictures, clothes,..to bric-a-brac. 
If you want to feel the 'real' Brussels, just fly over for a weekend...and visit this lovely market.  The market is everyday,..even sunday from 6h00 in the morning until 14h00. 
Enjoyed it.


viernes, 1 de febrero de 2013


Week 4


What has been running as a rumor, since various months, has been confirmed.  Retail giant Media Markt (Metro Group), has decided to close his 7 stores in China.
After 2 years of trying to expand in China, they have lost the battle, to concur the biggest growing consumer market in the world. Experts talk about one of the biggest retail failures of the last years.  
The heavy local competitors and the huge increasing trend of the Chinese, to buy through E-commerce, the limited product group like electronics, next to the extremely high rental prices for spacious A1 store locations, has made it very difficult, especially, when selling at very low prices.  It is clear, that you need more than being a world leader.., to be success full in China.  Its starts, by understanding, their culture, dynamics and the very fast changing retail trends.  As explained, in previous posts, Culture-Sensitive Marketing is very important.